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New York Must Expand Solar: How Does Its New Net Metering Process Fit in?

Since 1997, New York has allowed customers with certain types of distributed generation systems, including rooftop solar (sometimes referred to as “mass market” solar) and community solar, to participate in net metering. This simple billing method allows a customer’s consumption and generation to be “netted” at the end of every month. If a customer has consumed more energy from the grid than she has generated from her solar panels, she will pay for the net consumption. However, if a customer has generated more power than she has consumed, then that net generation will be rolled over into the next month’s bill and credited toward future consumption at the retail rate—i.e. the same amount that the customer is charged for using a kWh of electricity.

This form of compensation (sometimes referred to as “retail rate net metering”) has supported solar expansion with a simple, predictable formula. However, because this form of net metering relies only on retail rates, which tend not to vary by time or location, solar systems are not always installed in areas where they are most needed or combined with other technology like energy storage to provide additional value to the grid. Some areas of the grid need more congestion relief, some hours of the day have higher electricity demand, and some distributed energy sources are cleaner than others.

New York has decided to move away from retail rate net metering and toward a smarter and fairer pricing scheme that reflects clean energy resources’ value to the grid. The state is now grappling with creating such a system while at the same time ensuring that this transition is gradual and understandable to consumers.

What’s Next?

In 2015, the Public Service Commission (PSC) initiated the Reforming the Energy Vision (REV) process, which seeks to create a new utility business model that incorporates more distributed energy while ensuring that energy remains affordable, resilient, and reliable. Recognizing the need to develop a more accurate way of valuing these clean energy resources, in March 2017 the PSC issued an order transitioning from retail rate net metering to a net metering program referred to as Value of Distributed Energy Resources (VDER) that attempts to more accurately reflect the costs and benefits of these clean resources on the grid.

The first phase of the VDER process applies to larger solar installations including remote net metering (where the electricity produced from a solar installation at one location is credited toward electricity consumption at a different location) and community solar but not to residential rooftop solar. Phase One compensates these projects using a “Value Stack,” which identifies certain components that together represent the value of that clean energy to the grid. The values in the Phase One Value Stack include certain costs that the utility no longer has to incur, which are referred to as “avoided costs” and which are assigned a monetary value. These include:

 

In addition to these avoided costs, the Value Stack also includes a credit for the environmental attributes of certain types of clean energy, primarily the fact that they do not emit greenhouse gases.

A second phase of this transition (referred to as Phase Two Value Stack) is in process to further refine these values. After January 1, 2020, VDER will also apply to new residential rooftop projects under a new compensation method to replace traditional retail rate net metering.

New York’s Solar Gap

Because retail rate is a more straightforward, if blunt, method of net metering, developers may initially struggle to make an easy economic case for solar while transitioning to a value-based compensation structure. However, if done well, this new structure will allow solar to expand more efficiently in New York, with better outcomes for consumers and the climate. Continued expansion of solar is important, because in contrast to other Northeast states such as Massachusetts and Vermont, New York has relatively modest amounts of installed distributed solar given its population (Figure 1). It must accelerate to meet state and regional climate goals.

New York has set a goal of procuring 50% of its energy needs from renewable energy resources by 2030.  As shown in Acadia Center’s EnergyVision 2030, with further strategic action New York can reduce greenhouse gas emissions 45% by 2030, a target that will put the state on a path to meet minimum EnergyVision 2030 recommends that, in addition to sharply increasing grid scale wind and solar generation, New York needs to add 13.7 GW of distributed solar, more than 10 times the amount that has been installed to date.

Figure 1 – Per Capita Installed PV

Chart of per-capita installer solar in Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont, and New York

Paths Forward

New York’s need for more distributed solar can be addressed from multiple angles: first, by making the transition to value-based compensation as gradual and understandable as possible; and second, by supporting solar expansion through complementary programs. Acadia Center has been an active participant in the VDER proceeding since its inception. Recently, staff from the Department of Public Service approved several changes to the Phase One Value Stack to expand the types of eligible renewable energy resources and make it easier for customers to participate and receive compensation. These changes include:

 

Acadia Center supported these changes and submitted comments with these and other recommendations for improving various elements of the value stack to make it easier for customers to receive compensation and to ensure these resources are appropriately compensated for the value they add to the system.

Acadia Center also supports solar expansion in New York through statewide initiative and grassroots campaigns. One such state initiative is NY Sun, a program administered by NYSERDA that seeks to add 3 GW of installed solar capacity in the state by 2023. The program works by establishing cash incentives for developers that decline over time as solar installation increases in certain regions of the state. Recently, NYSERDA made improvements to the program by expanding the incentives, supporting larger projects, and encouraging solar installations in a greater variety of locations. In addition, Acadia Center is a founding member of Million Solar Strong, which seeks to double this statewide goal to 6 GW of solar capacity by installing solar on 1 million homes by 2023, including 100,000 low-income households. The campaign has been meeting with public officials and building support around the state.

New York must make the leap to close its solar gap, and both regulatory solutions and grassroots support will be necessary. Together, these efforts have the capacity to make lasting change for this key technology.

Massachusetts must fill void left by U.S. withdrawal from Paris Agreement (Guest viewpoint)

Op-ed by Daniel Sosland and Peter Rothstein in Mass Live.

Since President Trump announced his decision to withdraw from the Paris climate accord, business leaders, environmental organizations and public officials across the nation have expressed concern for the impact on our climate and economy. The momentum we’ve achieved in building our nation’s renewable and clean energy sector must now be picked up by forward-looking states, cities and businesses around the country. Massachusetts is in a unique position to be a leader in this effort.

Massachusetts has a long history of using policy to bolster renewable and advanced clean energy deployment and innovation. Massachusetts was one of the first states in the nation to enact a comprehensive regulatory program to address climate change with 2008’s Global Warming Solutions Act (GWSA). Last year, the Commonwealth built upon this leadership with the Energy Diversity Act, supporting offshore wind and other clean energy generation.

These progressive policies and investments in the state’s growing clean energy hub have paid off with strong economic results. A report from the Massachusetts Clean Energy Center found that the Commonwealth’s clean energy economy currently employs more than 105,000 people at over 6,700 companies, representing $11.8 billion in investment.

We know the policy tools and technologies needed to reduce climate pollution and accelerate clean energy adoption. Acadia Center’s EnergyVision 2030 shows that deploying a range of market-ready consumer technologies such as electric vehicles and efficient heat pumps to warm and cool buildings can deliver deep emissions reductions over the next 13 years when paired with policies to clean up the power grid.

A report from NECEC found that strengthening one of these policies – a requirement for utilities to purchase clean energy under the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) – would create thousands of jobs across the region, lower wholesale electricity prices and put us on track to meet our ambitious greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. Boosting the RPS will also provide long-term market stability and position the Commonwealth to build on its strengths in innovation and advanced manufacturing to capture a significant part of the trillion-dollar global clean energy market.

Massachusetts also needs to modernize its energy grid to support the growth of renewables and empower consumers and communities to control energy usage and costs by adopting clean technologies. Customers need to be provided with information on building energy usage to inform decisions. Barriers to electric vehicles, clean heating technologies and solar energy (in the form of net metering caps) must be removed. And policies must make the benefits of these technologies accessible to all consumers, including low-income families. Pricing carbon will unleash the power of the market to reduce emissions, particularly in the transportation sector, which is now Massachusetts’ largest source of climate pollution. For new and promising technologies such as energy storage, meaningful targets must be paired with enforcement mechanisms and tax incentives to speed deployment.

Policymakers are not solely responsible for driving the clean energy economy. The private sector recognizes that renewable energy is not only good for the planet – it’s good for a company’s bottom line. Renewable energy saved Boston-area hospitals $15 million in just a four-year period – enough to pay for 1,357 of the state’s Medicare enrollees. Big energy consumers like Cambridge-based cloud computing service Akamai are choosing renewables, which will power half the company’s global network operations by 2030.

Here in Massachusetts, we’ve already shown the rest of the country and the world what we can do when city and state governments work hand-in-hand with the business community and the support of the public to pursue clean and cost-effective energy solutions. Given the diminishing support from the federal government to advance a clean energy future, we must work even harder to implement smart energy policies at the state and regional level that grow jobs, drive regional competitiveness and build on the Northeast’s reputation as a clean energy and climate leader. With the leadership void left by our federal government, this work is more important than ever.

Peter Rothstein is president of the Northeast Clean Energy Council.

Daniel Sosland is president of Acadia Center.

Out with the Old, In with the New: The New York DSIPs and What They Mean for the Modernized Energy Grid

The traditional system we currently use for serving the needs of energy users is quickly going out of style. The energy grid is still relying on a system that was invented almost 100 years ago (hello, the 1930s called and they want their transmission and distribution lines back!). The old classic version of the grid has served an important purpose for getting energy to consumers reliably and safely, but today’s energy fashion is more demanding. While the old grid excelled at sending energy one-way from generators to consumers, the new energy grid needs to be able to accessorize by incorporating distributed energy resources (“DER”) such as solar and wind energy, active load management, and energy efficiency programs. DER will enable the development of a grid that is increasingly resilient, flexible, and adaptable to the needs of all energy consumers. In New York, a process is under way to try to bring these innovative new options online.

A modernized energy grid doesn’t happen overnight. States across the Northeastern U.S. are trying to figure out how to facilitate the transition from a traditional energy grid system to a more modernized grid. The Distributed System Implementation Plan (“DSIP”) process initiated by the New York Public Service Commission (“PSC” or “Commission”) may be one model for helping utilities make a smooth and efficient transition.

The Commission has required all electric service utilities to create and maintain comprehensive Plans detailing the processes by which they will transform the traditional one-way electric grid into a more dynamic and integrated grid that can manage two-way flows, is more resilient, and produces fewer carbon emissions. The DSIPs are a comprehensive source of information for the public and serve to consolidate several important pieces of New York’s Reforming the Energy Vision (“REV”) strategy.  They are also intended to be a source of data and information to assist third-party DER providers with planning and investment. The new energy grid will require joint decision-making and planning between utilities, third-party providers, consumers, regulatory bodies, and other interested parties. This means that transparency and visibility are paramount to achieving a modernized grid.

The DSIP process is novel in that it has required utilities to make their internal decision-making more transparent and begin making joint planning decisions. This type of practice has potential for creating a collaborative environment that produces a constructive transition. The DSIP process has done well in New York to:

While the DSIPs that the utilities produced are important and useful, in many ways they fall short of what was expected of them. Some improvements that should be made to the DSIPs include:

In sum, the DSIP process provides one model for states to facilitate the transition to the modernized energy grid, but they should look for opportunities to build on New York’s model. These first DSIPs were filed in 2016. Updated DSIPs will be filed in June 2018, giving utilities another opportunity to seek and receive the level of detailed data and planning that is needed to inform decision-making by other stakeholders and in other states.

Summaries of Important DSIP Focus Areas

Some of the most relevant aspects of the DSIPs are briefly described and assessed below. For more information about the New York DSIPs, read Acadia Center’s full Summary Analysis or the DSIP documents available in the proceedings.

Forecasting is the process by which utilities make predictions about energy load on the grid. Utilities also use forecasting to predict penetration of different DER technologies on the grid. These predictions have varied implications for what the grid needs to ensure reliable and safe power to all customers. The DSIPs provide a first glimpse into the calculations that utilities use and the impacts that DER are expected to have on forecasting. However, the DSIPs also reveal that utilities need to improve their forecasting processes and especially that they need to continue refining their methods for predicting DER penetration as well as DER impacts on the grid.

Utilities’ plans for accommodating and enabling DER on the energy grid are addressed in the DSIPs. As DER increase, their impacts on the grid increase. Distributed generation (such as wind and solar) for example, will increasingly be able to inject energy into the grid from various locations. The current energy grid can only manage a limited amount of distributed generation since it is currently only configured to manage energy flowing from a select few large generators into the homes and businesses of energy users. To optimize development of DER, third-party developers need to have detailed information about where DER can be accommodated and where DER might be most beneficial. The DSIPs provide important information about when and how this information will be available. They also describe their plans for streamlining the interconnection processes for distributed generators. These efforts will go a long way to reduce barriers for integrating DER with the grid, but the DSIPs also show a lack of preparation and planning for actively encouraging more DER. Increasing DER will be invaluable for enhancing resiliency and flexibility as well as decreasing carbon emissions.

Non-wires alternatives are DER that are procured by utilities to address the needs of the energy grid. Traditionally, utilities simply invest in more traditional infrastructure when the need arises. These types of upgrades are costly for the utility and thus for ratepayers. Alternatively, DER can be more cost-effective and can be used to avoid or postpone traditional infrastructure investments. The DSIPs provide clear analysis of the types of projects that they consider suitable for using non-wires alternatives. The utilities have defined a narrow range of projects that are suitable for these alternatives, and limiting the range of possible projects in this way means that there will be missed opportunities to address a wider range of system needs.

Advanced Metering Infrastructure (“AMI”) is important for advancing grid modernization efforts. It will enable utilities to vastly improve data-gathering capabilities and increase their ability to control energy load on the system. In the past, meters were only needed to measure energy used within a time frame, usually one month. With AMI, meters will be able to report hourly or even near to real-time data about energy use. This information will be invaluable for load forecasting and for better understanding DER impacts on the grid. Utilities will also be able to share data with customers – empowering them to better manage their own energy use. AMI also enables strategies to optimize the grid, like demand response, time-varying rates, and active load management. These strategies are based on increasing energy consumption during off-peak periods and decreasing it during peak hours. The DSIPs show that all utilities are planning to implement AMI over the next several years. However, the utilities are not consistent in how they present their plans for AMI roll-out. Some utilities provide excellent summaries or even include their full plans in the appendix of their DSIP. Other utilities provide almost no summary and simply refer to other proceedings.

Electric Vehicles will be key for achieving New York’s carbon emissions reduction goals. New York has made clear goals for increasing the number of electric vehicles on the road. This will require increased infrastructure, such as charging stations. Utilities are expected to be proactive about planning for and enabling the electric vehicle market. The DSIPs show that utilities are implementing pilot projects, mostly aimed at better understanding how these vehicles are used and charged, which will in turn help utilities better understand their impact on the grid. The utilities have also jointly produced a plan for creating an “EV Readiness Framework” which will guide their actions for preparing for electric vehicles. The DSIPs lack any concrete plans for going beyond pilot projects to implementing any wide-scale infrastructure investments for electric vehicles.

The DSIPs include investment plans that indicate how and where the utilities will spend money in the next several years to begin the transition to a modernized energy grid. Generally, utilities are investing in new systems and capabilities that will enhance data-gathering, load management, and DER integration, which will in turn increase grid reliability and efficiency. Utilities also need to invest in improving customer engagement by providing understandable billing and secure data exchange platforms.

Energy Forum Highlights Programs that Help Reduce Demand

…The program, known as DemandLink, was highlighted Friday at a forum on clean energy that was hosted by Acadia Center, a regional environmental group with expertise in energy issues, and the Rhode Island Foundation.
DemandLink is just the type of initiative that Acadia Center wants to see more of as part of a transformation of the New England power system that’s based on expanding energy efficiency, integrating more renewables and ultimately reducing the fossil fuel emissions that are driving climate change…

Envisioning the Energy Future for RI: Making the System Work for Consumers and the Environment

As consumers become more aware of the costs and impacts of energy use on health and the environment, we’re looking for ways to re-envision the energy system. With emerging technologies and approaches, a new system is possible.

Acadia Center invites you to a discussion, hosted by the Rhode Island Foundation, which will lay out a strategic plan to achieve a new system that meets our energy needs and supports a fair, healthy economy and environment.

Acadia Center staff will tell the story of how we can get there. The presentation will draw on the user-friendly visuals, recommendations and original research in our recent reports EnergyVision and UtilityVision, with background on trends from ClimateVision 2020. It will show an optimistic and achievable pathway for making deep greenhouse gas reductions and introduce specific recommendations for advancing a consumer- and environmentally-friendly clean energy future. The presentation portion will be engaging and brief, leaving plenty of time for questions and discussion. We hope you will join us.

WhenUVsnip

Friday, June 26 10 AM – 12 PM

Where 

Rhode Island Foundation
1 Union Station
Providence, RI 02903

We encourage you to use public transportation, but the Rhode Island Foundation is generously offering to validate parking.

RSVP

If you plan to come, please register on our Eventbrite page. The event is free and all are welcome to register.

Highlights: Envisioning Our Energy Future Forum

Acadia Center held a forum on Envisioning Our Energy Future in Boston on February 24th. The event was intended to help foster thought-leadership in the energy space, bringing together stakeholders and experts for a discussion of timely topics, with three panels and a lunch speaker.

A highlight of the day was the keynote presentation by Klaus Vesløv, developer of a smart grid pilot program on the Danish island of Bornholm, the first pilot in the EU to focus on how customer behavior impacts grid modernization efforts. The ECOGRID pilot is one of the foundations for fulfilling the Bornholm strategy of being 100% fossil free by 2025, and becoming a Bright Green Island. With Denmark as a whole setting the goal to be fossil free by 2050, reforms are underway to use wind turbines as the foundation of the grid and electrify heating and transportation.  Mr. Vesløv shared inspiring ideas and lessons from his work on this project.

KV Keynote EOEF 022415

Klaus Vesløv, Keynote Speaker, Envisioning Our Energy Future Forum

The three panels of the day featured presentations from stakeholders with a wide range of expertise in the energy fields, and discussions of:

 

Full agenda and presentations available here.

Panel A4 EOEF 022415

Acadia Center’s Abigail Anthony and “Utility of the Future” panelists

The event was also a public debut for Acadia Center’s UtilityVision, which provides comprehensive recommendations for decision-makers to advance a modern, consumer-friendly and environmentally-friendly electric grid. These recommendations contributed to the conversation at the event.

Acadia Center is grateful to the panelists and attendees who made this day a success and looks forward to more events in the future.

EOEF 022415

Attendees engaged in Q&A with panelists at the forum

Relationship between utilities, government needs to change, experts say

As Connecticut lawmakers begin to consider a slew of energy-related bills, they spent time Monday listening to advice from New York State’s “energy czar” and other experts about how the relationship between the utility industry and government needs to be overhauled…

…Amid discussion of increased utility infrastructure spending and use of technology, Abigail Anthony, director of the grid modernization initiative for the Acadia Center as well as the regional environmental group’s Rhode Island director, urged lawmakers not to lose sight of the consumer in the process.

“Our grid is not advanced if it does not protect consumers.” Anthony said. “It should be about creating healthier and better communities.”

Announcing UtilityVision: Empowering Consumers for a Clean Energy Future

UtilityVision is here! This publication frames an ambitious but realistic energy future that puts the consumer firmly in the center to allow them greater freedom and control over energy costs. UtilityVision presents a comprehensive regulatory framework for a modern energy system that revolves around the consumer and propels us toward our climate and economic goals.

AcadiaCenter_YourEnergyFuture

Copyright Acadia Center, 2015 (click to enlarge)

There are five key areas for reform:

 

UtilityVision addresses one core part of Acadia Center’s vision a clean energy system that will drive down carbon emissions.  It outlines a pathway and detailed policy recommendations for stakeholders and regulators to modernize the way we plan, manage and invest in the power grid. This approach addresses utility business models, rate-making and customer-side energy resources together. UtilityVision follows on Acadia Center’s EnergyVision (2014) which charts out reforms in four interconnected areas to produce a cleaner, lower cost energy system and reach 80 percent carbon emission reductions by 2050.

Press release announcing UtilityVision  here.

UtilityVision: Empowering Consumers to for a Clean Energy Future

Today, Acadia Center, a leading non-profit organization that researches and advocates innovative approaches to advance the clean energy future, released, “UtilityVision: Reforming the Energy System to Work for Consumers and the Environment.” The publication presents an ambitious but realistic energy future that puts the consumer firmly in the center. UtilityVision outlines the specific steps needed to create a new energy system that both meets our needs and supports a fair, healthy economy and environment.

“The interests of consumers and a sustainable energy system are merged now more than ever before,” said Daniel Sosland, Acadia Center President. “UtilityVision offers a comprehensive pathway to a smart and dynamic electric system focused on giving consumers and communities greater freedom and control over their energy costs. This new system would be managed with the cooperation of utilities, governed by updated regulations that honor energy technology change, and provide a fair and safe system to protect consumers.”

The need for a comprehensive, new look at the energy system is urgent. “Decisions are being made today in state proceedings that will influence whether we steer towards a cleaner, more efficient and consumer friendly system,” Sosland said. “UtilityVision shows how we can embrace that future.”

UtilityVision is a comprehensive regulatory framework which shows how the parts of a modern energy system can be aligned to put the consumer at the system’s center.  This integrated vision enables us to attain our climate, economic, and consumer goals. UtilityVision is organized around five key areas for reform:

“Acadia Center’s UtilityVision demonstrates that consumer interests today include a broad span of energy-related issues, from the bedrock consumer concern of affordability to newer considerations like improved energy control, more sustainable energy, clear and accessible energy information, and the opportunity to generate their own local energy and sell it back to the grid,” said Abigail Anthony, Director of Acadia Center’s Grid Modernization and Utility Reform Initiative.

“UtilityVision provides an opportunity for regulators and key stakeholders to view consumer interests in this broader context far beyond the outdated lens of the centralized, one-way power grid of the past,” Anthony said.

Background: UtilityVision addresses one core part of a vision for how to move to a clean energy system and drive down carbon emissions.  It outlines a pathway for stakeholders and regulators to modernize the way we plan, manage and invest in the power grid and ties utility business models, rate-making and customer-side energy resources all together. The illustrated publication outlines the full range of relevant issues and includes detailed policy recommendations. It will serve as a starting point for conversations with policy makers, constituent groups, media and other public forums.

UtilityVision builds on Acadia Center’s EnergyVision (https://acadiacenter.org/document/energyvision/) —released in 2014—which charts out reforms in four interconnected areas to produce a cleaner, lower cost energy system and reach the necessary 80 percent carbon emission reductions by 2050.

UtilityVision is available online: https://acadiacenter.org/document/utilityvision

 

Contacts

Abigail Anthony, Director, Grid Modernization and Utility Reform Initiative, 401-276-0600, aanthony@acadiacenter.org
Emily Avery-Miller, Director External Relations, Acadia Center, 617-742-0054 x100, eavery-miller@acadiacenter.org

Forum: Envisioning Our Energy Future, Boston, 2/24

Please join Acadia Center in Boston on February 24th for a public forum: Envisioning Our Energy Future. The event is intended to help foster thought-leadership in the energy space, bringing together stakeholders and experts for a discussion of timely topics, with three panels and a lunch speaker.

Where: Federal Reserve Plaza/600 Atlantic Avenue, Connolly Center, Harborside 4th Floor
When: February 24th, 10AM-3:30PM
Lunch provided
To attend & for more information: https://www.eventbrite.com/e/envisioning-our-energy-future-tickets-15275579670

Keynote (Lunch) Speaker
Klaus Veslov of EcoGrid EU, is the developer of a E23 million smart grid pilot program on the Danish island of Bornhom—the first pilot in the EU to focus on how customer behavior impacts grid modernization efforts.  The EcoGrid pilot program is a core strategy for the Bornholm goal of being 100% fossil fuel free by 2025. For more information: http://www.eu-ecogrid.net/eogrid-eu/the-bornholm-test-site

Panels

I.    Utility of the Future
The advancement of viable, distributed energy technologies in the marketplace is happening quickly. Technology changes in the market are occurring faster than the regulatory structures governing the utilities.  There is a vast opportunity to structure a new energy system that embraces decentralized energy technologies. This panel will be asked to describe their vision of the future and identify key steps to achieving it.

Panelists: Nathan Adams, Green Mountain Power; Tim Woolf, Synapse Energy Economics, Inc; Jonathan Schrag, Guarini Center (NY); Peter Rothstein, New England Clean Energy Council

II.    Leveling the Playing Field for Distributed Energy Resources
The current system for planning and paying for the energy system favors poles and wires expenditures over investments to reduce demand for grid-supplied power, driving transmission and distribution costs higher than they would be if “non-wires alternatives” (NWA) could compete on a level playing field. The panel will examine recent examples of utilizing NWAs and explore policy reforms that can facilitate competition and reduce transmission and distribution costs.

Panelists: Amy Boyd, Acadia Center; Fran Cummings, Peregrine Energy Group; Jim Grevatt, Energy Futures Group; Kerrick Johnson, Vermont Electric Power Company

III.    The Role for Energy Efficiency and Demand-Side Resources to Reduce Price Pressures in the Energy System
Flexibility in energy efficiency investment programs offers the potential to achieve specific objectives such as serving low-income customers or geographic targeting to defer infrastructure upgrades. This panel will explore current efforts to utilize targeted efficiency investments and consider challenges to efficiency program design and implementation.

Panelists: Jeremy Newberger, National Grid; Eric Wilkinson, ISO-NE; Michael Stoddard, Efficiency Maine Trust; Jeff Schlegel, Efficiency Expert.